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They were the only monotheists in the world and they subscribed to a worldview that is totally different from anyone else's ― namely, that everything that exists had been created and is sustained by one infinite, invisible and caring God.
This idea ― particularly that this caring, perfect Being busies Himself with the lives of imperfect mortals ― the Greeks found just about incomprehensible.
This translation was called the "Septuagint" after the 70 rabbis who did it.
It happened that King Ptolemy gathered seventy-two sages and placed them in seventy-two houses without telling them why he had brought them together.
It was also not a struggle purely between Greeks and Jews.
To make matters worse, the schism between the Hellenized Jews and mainstream Jews is paralleled by another schism ― between two factions of religious Jews.
This was an ancient book, which the Jews claimed they got from God, and which contained odd teachings on how to lead a life of peace, brotherhood, social responsibility, and respect for life ― all values that were far removed from Greek ideals.
In short, the Greeks didn't know what to make of the Jews. The Greeks were people who valued education and intellectual pursuits ― something the Jews also valued and very much admired.
Alexander's vast empire did not survive his death in 323 BCE, but fragmented into three large chunks centered in Greece, Egypt, and Syria and controlled by his former generals.
These three smaller empires were known as: Initially, Israel falls under the Ptolemies of Egypt.